According to Wikipedia: the word photograph was coined in 1839 by Sir John Herschel, and comes from two Greek words: phos (“light”) and graphe (“drawing”), essentially “drawing with light“.
From a simplistic standpoint, photography is the process of recording a image (or series of images) onto a medium (either film or electronic sensor). The device used to capture images is called a camera.
Cameras acts the same way as human eyes do. The image, essentially light bouncing off an object (or objects), passes throught the lens and bends it (refracted), and recorded on the retina. The pupils of our eyes adjust its diameter controlling the amount of light passing through the lens: if the light is too bright, the pupils contract; if the light is too low, the pupils dilate (open up).
The camera has a lens too. It also, refracts light from an object, and records it on either film or electronic sensor. Digital cameras sensors are made up of either Charged-Coupled Diodes (CCD) or Complementary Metalic Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS). To control the amount to light, the camera has an aperture. To capture an image, the camera has a shutter to control how long the film or sensor is exposed to light to capture the image. The more the light, the less time it takes to capture the image. Inversely, the less light striking the object, the longer the exposure time.
Basically, that’s how the camera operates. I’ll discuss some other things in my later posts.